3 Theories Of Ethics

These include Aristotle and Aquinas' natural law, Judeo-Christian morality, Kant's universal duties, and the values characterizing modern democracy. 0 The Role of Corporate Ethics 7. 4(b) of the American Bar Association's Model Rules of Professional Conduct, which expressly prohibits a lawyer from counseling or assisting a witness. Metaethics concerns the nature of ethics, how ethical terms can be defined, what methods of justification are appropriate to ethics, and how we can know any. Ethics is a normative discipline, not a descriptive discipline. Applied ethics is one of the three divisions of the philosophy of ethics. Hence this theory was popularized by taking both male and female thinking capabilities into account. As typical examples of teleological ethical theories, one refers to classical utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill) and such 20th-century developments as rule utilitarianism (R. Freeman’s Stakeholder Theory. Metaethics is a discussion about ethics; it attempts to define terms, determine the authority of right and wrong, and investigate why people feel the inclination to be ethical. Types of Teleological Ethical Theories. It is the practice of learning about, and recommending practices of right and wrong behavior. Plato's concept of ethics is the theory of Virtues, these are deep-seated characteristical traits of people, and when they are fully expressed in a person, that person is ethical. 3 Finally,there are ‘foundational’ and metaphysical theories of value in which value goes beyond the subject-. honesty, fairness, kindness, faithfulness, generosity, prudence, integrity, bravery, etc. A few of the major schools of thought: 1. The paper should be between 1500 – 2000 words, submitted as an attachment as an MS Word or Word compatible document. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Striving to become sensitive, makes the nurse more authentic, which encourages self-growth and self-actualization, in both the nurse and those with whom the nurse interacts. Ethical Breakdowns. I chose to examine the Utilitarianism and Kantianism ethical systems because at times. Harwood Page 3 Summary of traits identified by the researchers:. (4) Non-cognitivism: Therefore (from 1, 2, and 3) ethical statements are not literally meaningful, and can be neither true nor false. Moreover, a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving to make responsible choices within a moral community. Examples of how a theory may relate to and assist law enforcement are included. It considers ethics that focuses on the consequences of what is done instead of prohibiting or allowing specific acts. Cultural imperialism 3. It addresses the meaning of ethical terms such as right, duty, obligation, justification, morality, responsibility. , it produces the. The best known version of consequentialism is utilitarianism. 3) Action: harmony with what is believed and not changing to please others 4) Relational Orientation: seeks openness and truthfulness in close relationships- letting others see the good and bad aspects of who we really are. University Publishing Group, 1998 5. 2: Criticisms of Act Nonconsequentialism 33 3. Prerequisite: graduate standing in College of Education or permission of instructor. Therefore, in making ethical decisions, one of the first questions to consider is 'what a reasonable man would do in this situation?'For tougher decisions, advisors may find three rules of management helpful. Virtue ethics takes its philosophical root in the work of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. Make sure you complete exercise 1. What is ethics of care! Arose out of feminist theories and perspectives Shifts the focus to the unique demands of specific situations, and the feelings and virtues that are central to close personal relationship (Compassion, empathy, love, sympathy, fidelity, etc. Ethical Theories Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights, rules, benefit to society, fairness, etc. Each moral theory holds a specific approach in how to handle life's decisions. The grants are awarded to individuals who are expanding their clinical services, reaching out to culturally diverse populations, or creating resources for those in need. Therefore, in making ethical decisions, one of the first questions to consider is 'what a reasonable man would do in this situation?'For tougher decisions, advisors may find three rules of management helpful. Deontology. the two group theory, classifies them as consequentionalism and deontology. As any other theory it provides explanation and understanding. Reality isn’t as plain and simple as we often like to think. The following is an overview of each, along with how they compare and contrast to each other. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. Ethical leadership across all three levels nourishes the relationships that empower human enterprise. Meta-ethics is the conceptual analysis of why we should be concerned with ethics. sound ethical leadership. Define competency and decisional capacity 5. The Code sets forth the ethical obligations of ACA members and provides guidance intended to inform the ethical practice of professional counselors. By contrast, existentialism emphasizes the human subject as the only ultimate source of morality. Relate the notion of moral virtue to reason and the emotions. Three theories about justice, but nobody agrees completely. Some people talk as if ethical theories give us moral prescriptions. Hierarchies of Ethical Principles for Ethical Decision Making in Social Work. • Analysis of the language, concepts and methods of resoning in ethics. Introduction 3. The applied ethics topic for the week relates to the ethics of war and peace. normative ethics an approach to ethics that works from standards of right or good action. These include Aristotle and Aquinas' natural law, Judeo-Christian morality, Kant's universal duties, and the values characterizing modern democracy. The business ethics theory is based on wider social obligation and the moral duty that business has towards society (Bigg, 2004). Section 3 guides individuals who have a leadership role, whether in the workplace or in a volunteer professional capacity. To deepen your knowledge and perspective, we provide numerous articles, papers and webinars. It is important to. Ethical egoism is a philosophical argument that falls into the realm of ethical philosophy. Ethics in Sociological Research. the two group theory, classifies them as consequentionalism and deontology. Desire theories hold that happiness is a matter of getting what you want (Griffin, 1986), with the content of the want left up to the person who does the wanting. 3: Divine Command Theory 33 3. ) All this means is that we think there are some objective moral facts. Broadly speaking, there are three competing views on how moral questions should be answered, along with hybrid positions that combine some elements of each. First, there are assumptions about the environment of the organization: society and its structure, the market, the customer, and technology. Theories of Ethics Thomas Lombardo Within human history and continuing into present times, we find many theories of ethics and the good. II - Anthropocentric Ethical Theories: Relations With Nonhuman Beings - Mouchang Yu, Yi Lei ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Norton B. 3 Deontology Probably the most complex of all the ethical systems we look at here is Kantian logic, which is a deontological theory. 6 (June 2007) 370-372. The pros and cons of each theory could be examined in much more detail, and further examples of how these theories are used in policy debates and in constructing arguments could. Social workers should consider ethical theory and principles generally, social work theory and research, laws, regulations, agency policies, and other relevant codes of ethics, recognizing that among codes of ethics social workers should consider the NASW Code of Ethics as their primary source. Besides these just covered theories, there are three other approaches, which deserve attention. Like hedonism, desire theory can explain why an ice-cream cone is preferable to a poke in the eye. 1: Less than adequate or incomplete understanding of ethical theories and arguments. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). Virtue theories claim that ethics is about agents, not actions or consequences. How does applied ethics work? Applied ethics is one of the three divisions of the philosophy of ethics. Do not confuse altruism with kindness, good will or respect for the rights of others. 1 The problem with virtue ethics is that societies can place different emphasis on different virtues. In the larger, group capacity,. Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with morality and how it shapes behavior. In ethical theories prior to the twentieth century, it is impossible to discern any sharp distinction between what have come to be called metaethics and normative ethics. It is important to. The next three chapters will provide the "toolbox" of global ethics, which will give you the means to approach any dilemma in global ethics. Self-regarding desires 15. 1 Sarbanes-Oxley Act 7. These are:-1 Descriptive Theories 2 Normative Theories 3 Analytical or Meta-ethics Descriptive Ethical Theories These types of theories are basically empirical or scientific in orientation. An initial definition of ethics, then, is the analysis, evaluation,. Virtue ethics is a philosophy developed by Aristotle and other ancient Greeks. Etymologically, “ethics” comes from the Greek “ethos” meaning “character” which indicates a concern for virtuous people, reliable character and proper conduct. The harsh environment presented many difficulties and made farming the western plains difficult. It describes the minimum requirements for conduct, and behavioral expectations rather than specific activities. In order to determine an applied ethics issue, there are 2 criteria; firstly, this issue needs to be controversial in the matter that there will be specific groups of individuals, both. Traditional ethical theories presuppose that a moral agent is an autonomous, independent individual. It is also known as ethical formalism or absolutism. Moral theories (identifying my target) In Approaches to ethics in higher education: teaching ethics across the curriculum, Susan Illingworth[2] identifies three different approaches to teaching applied ethics: pragmatic, embedded and theoretical. , ethical terms are thought to be non-descriptive and to express little more than personal attitudes, endorsement, or commendation. The four main theories of personality are the psychoanalytic, trait, humanistic and social cognition approaches. Principles which hold for everybody will prescribe or recommend the same for everybody (same obligations, same rights, same virtues and so on). The three best known normative theories are. Included in this area is the concept of "virtues". Uses the best available readings to ask. To illustrate the differences between these theories, consider the case of lying. They think we should apply ethical principles as we would a poultice: after diagnosing the ailment, we apply the appropriate dressing. , it produces the. With A Theory of General Ethics Warwick Fox both defines the field of General Ethics and offers the first example of a truly general ethics. Like hedonism, desire theory can explain why an ice-cream cone is preferable to a poke in the eye. 3 Teleological ethics Consequentialism. 0 Recommended Policies to be Implemented 7. 8 Ethical Theory for Fraud Examiners. These theories can also be accessed by learning domains and concepts. Partner content · Wireless Philosophy · Value theory · Ethics. 3: Marathon Runners at Different Levels Leadership Instrument Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire Scoring Scoring Interpretation Summary Chapter 8. To simply put, it concerned with questions about what whether or not morality exists, and what it consists of if it does. I worry that theory has obscured reality and question why the greater good is not served by the quick and painless death that rules and rule‐based ethics have proscribed. The Role of Ethical Theories in Decision Making by Social Workers. The Code of Ethics states the principles and expectations governing the behavior of individuals and organizations in the conduct of internal auditing. But Allen’s group, informed by ethics and economics, points out. Read the latest scientific findings relating to ethics, bioethics, medical technology, abortion, suicide and more. Metaethics is a discussion about ethics; it attempts to define terms, determine the authority of right and wrong, and investigate why people feel the inclination to be ethical. What is ethics of care! Arose out of feminist theories and perspectives Shifts the focus to the unique demands of specific situations, and the feelings and virtues that are central to close personal relationship (Compassion, empathy, love, sympathy, fidelity, etc. 6 A Theory of Justice; Summary; Key Terms; Assessment Questions; End Notes. CCIE Security V4. Each chapter has theory and cases, making it very easy to use. Virtue theory, Utilitarianism, and deontological ethics are three differing ethic theories. Moral absolutism 7. This subdiscipline of ethics deals with many major issues of the. Several things we take for granted as true are, in reality, patently false. “An exhaustive philosophical treatise defining moral values, with a long list. A theory or a system of moral values: “An ethic of service is at war with a craving for gain" The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession. Because they are often presented as competing theories of ethical obligation, one may get the discouraging impression that there is a permanent lack of consensus among. There are four primary approaches to reinforcement theory: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment, which will be covered in a later paragraph. 7 For development of these arguments, see McMahan (2002). Ethical Theories Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights, rules, benefit to society, fairness, etc. What are ethical theories? Different ways of determing right or wrong actions and way of thinking about ethical issues. As a field of study: the systematic attempt to make sense of our individual and social moral experience, in such as way as to determine the rules that ought to govern human conduct, the values worth pursuing, and the character traits deserving development in life. Iccha Basnyat. Examine loyalties and see if any conflict. The three ethical theories are metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. Special pleading 16. ethical thinking that may be useful. 0 The Role of Corporate Ethics 7. Brandt and others) and preference utilitarianism (R. Ciulla, “Ethics and Leadership Effectiveness,” Book Chapter in The Nature of Leadership. This process differs from only acting upon items of self-interest or creating a rational explanation behind the need to pursue one's own self-interest. Virtue based theories focus on the character of the person. Normative Ethics (or Prescriptive Ethics) is the branch of ethics concerned with establishing how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad, and which actions are right or wrong. There are two types of ethics of conduct. An engineer with ethics is a person who is expected to possess the moral integrity with rich ethical values. Ý A moral theory, then, explains why a certain action is wrong -- or why we ought to act in certain ways. In particular, counsel are reminded of Rule 3. If there was only one pathway to truth, and only one truth, life may be easier and less challenging. We study ethics in order to improve our lives, and therefore its principal concern is the nature of. This would be an apt point for a nihilist to make. ethical thinking that may be useful. Support workplace policies, standards and practices that are fair, non-discriminatory and are in the best interests of children, families and professionals. 1 Three Models of Legal Ethics, by Anthony D'Amato* and Edward J. Hall and Ellman, Health Care Law and Ethics, West. The THEORY OF The IDEAS And PLATO’S EPISTEMOLOGY. introduction to ethical concepts A clear understanding of the terms, concepts and distinctions that people commonly use to express moral or ethical problems and concerns enables us to identify what is ethically significant (or "morally relevant") in a situation. Utilitarianism 17. Ethical Egoism (EGO): An action X is morally right iff X promotes my (the speaker's) best interests at least as well as any alternative to X. Virtue Ethics Based off of the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Scientists and philosophers have done their best to overthrow the theories of common sense—as you’ll see by the ten examples below: The “ Big Freeze ” is a scientific theory of the end of the universe. It provides also a vast number of cases as examples of the theories explained. The three best known normative theories are. Philosophers nowadays tend to divide ethical theories into three areas: metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. It should be incorporated into daily actions/decisions, particularly ones that will have an effect on other persons and/or the environment. In ethics, of which questions about justice are a part, 1 we similarly divide ethics from metaethics. 3 Approaches to Ethics: Principles, Outcomes and Integrity but establishing ethical theories into their three schools is a useful way to understand ethics. They're really convincing and can certainly work. NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. An example might be the same law in Texas where all drivers will drive on the right hand side of the road; however, if there is a good reason, like a medical emergency a driver could drive on the left and side of the road. Kant does not discuss happiness much because happiness is not the basis of his system of ethics, in contrast to most ethical theories which make happiness the aim of morality. “solving” ethical dilemmas and on the other, as a stepping-stone for the ethical analysis and evalua-. The three theories that will be discussed in this paper include utilitarianism, virtue ethics, and feminist theory. 1: The Good Will Existence 34 3. In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically. Reply: Then we can use rules of thumb which a long experience has shown to be usually successful. Ethics isn't just about. Because if our meta-ethical theories are wrong, then our assertions about normative or applied ethics are unfounded. Applying all five approaches to the same problem (practicing ethical pluralism) is a good way to generate new 3 01-Johnson(Ethics)-45065. Ethics definition, a system of moral principles: the ethics of a culture. By analyzing the various components of the Law of Effect and the primary approaches, we can achieve desired results,. I argue that each theorist modifies. Reviewed by Charlotte A. So, it is helpful to discern three levels of abstraction in ethics: 1. Applied ethics is the actual application of ethical theory for the purpose of choosing an ethical action in a given issue, usually divided into various field. Description. Political theories- on interactions and connections between business and society and on the power of business and its inherent responsibility. The Curricular Integration of Ethics: Theory and Practice. Ethics matters because (1) it is part of how many groups define themselves and thus part of the identity of their individual members, (2) other-regarding values in most ethical systems both reflect and foster close human relationships and mutual respect and trust, and (3) it could be "rational" for a self-interested person to be moral, because his or her self-interest is arguably best.   The aim of ethical theory is to give a reasoned account of how we ought to be or act, individually or communally. Consequentialist vs. How can we use ethical theories and frameworks to help us determine appropriate legislation or whether or not a particular technology is designed to be ethical? The good news is that for many centuries, philosophers have discussed theoretical ways of understanding morality and ethics and have theorized various ways to guide moral living. A set of principles of. Three Kinds of Ethics. Different ethical theories. The Code enables the association to clarify. Socrates exhibited a “daimonion” — a divine sign or inner voice which issued prohibitory messages in periods of Socratic spells (which some writers find suggestive of epilepsy). Volume 2, 2008 - Issue 2. THREE ETHICAL THEORIES. The first that comes to mind is Deontology. Theories of Ethical Duties of Manufacturers: There are three different theories on the ethical duties of manufacturers viz. As theories, all normative ethical theories share. The Code of Ethics for Nurses reflects all of these approaches. Three Theories of the Good There are, in essence, three schools of thought on the nature of the good: the intrinsic, the subjective, and the objective. Aristotle made several efforts to explain how moral conduct contributes to the good life for human agents, including the Εθικη Ευδαιμονης (Eudemian Ethics) and the Magna Moralia, but the most complete surviving statement of his views on morality occurs in the Εθικη Νικομαχοι (Nicomachean Ethics). These theories propose a set of ethical principles that can be easily assessed and. Theories of Morality Theories of Morality The three main theories of morality include Aristotle’s, Kant’s, and Mill’s. 1 Board of Directors 5. The field of ethics, or moral philosophy, investigates theories that can systematically describe what makes acts right or wrong. CCIE Security V4. non-consequentialist theories of ethics There are two broad categories of ethical theories concerning the source of value: consquentialist and non-consequentialist. That is a judgment, not a principle, and certainly not a theory. The business ethics theory is based on wider social obligation and the moral duty that business has towards society (Bigg, 2004). what one wants. As any other theory it provides explanation and understanding. Different branches of the study of ethics look at where our views of morality come from and how they shape our everyday lives. by Lori Corrigan. Ethics is not concerned with describing the sorts of moral views people in fact hold. Is anything and thus everything permissible in war? Great empires have carried out savage massacres with no regard to noncombatants or prisoners or whether or not warfare is justified on the grounds of self-defense or divine sanction. Because they are often presented as competing theories of ethical obligation, one may get the discouraging impression that there is a permanent lack of consensus among. Antonakis, A. Moreover, a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving to make responsible choices within a moral community. Ethical theories are thus formal statements about what we ought to do, when faced with an ethical dilemma. Answer: The three theories of ethics are: 1. - List of duties is educational in itself. It is important to appreciate that EGO is a very different theory than SES. The Code of Ethics states the principles and expectations governing the behavior of individuals and organizations in the conduct of internal auditing. CONSEQUENTIALIST ETHICAL THEORIES A (PURELY) CONSEQUENTIALIST Ethical Theory is a general normative theory that bases the moral evaluation of acts, rules, institutions, etc. According to virtue based theories, ethics is about what sort of person one should strive to become. The following is an overview of each, along with how they compare and contrast to each other. ETHICS OF CONSUMER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING - Theories and Definitions. Engineering is an important and learned profession. However, how does the notion of a caring relationship lead to a new framework of ethics? Traditionally, ethical dilemmas may be solved by employing logic or reasoning, by living by a strict moral code. In 2014, an article in IJRM ranked the following article as #1 in “academic impact” in marketing science for the years 1982-2003 (based on citations): Morgan, Robert M. Deontology. In terms of business ethics, it's not difficult to interpret Travolta's transformation from a businessman taking care of the bottom line, to one engaged by a broader vision of social responsibility. This process differs from only acting upon items of self-interest or creating a rational explanation behind the need to pursue one's own self-interest. Ethic definition is - the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. Do not confuse altruism with kindness, good will or respect for the rights of others. Like hedonism, desire theory can explain why an ice-cream cone is preferable to a poke in the eye. But Williams is no nihilist, and has himself engaged in a good deal of practical ethics,. The field of ethics, or moral philosophy, investigates theories that can systematically describe what makes acts right or wrong. New forms of communication are reshaping the practice of a once parochial craft serving a local, regional or national public. - List of duties is educational in itself. Second, I am not against moral theories. A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that explains or predicts events or situations by specifying relations among variables. Most of modern ethical meta-theory has tried to ground ethical claims in reason, which is taken to be universal, or moral intuitions which are also taken to be universal. It is the practice of learning about, and recommending practices of right and wrong behavior. The foundation of ethical decision-making involves choice and balance; it is a guide to discard bad choices in favor of good ones. Passmore J. Virtue Ethics and the view that ethics should be wholly concerned with a person’s attributes based on the holistic theory of Aristotle and his Golden Mean, is a newly accepted theory, which looks at a person’s virtues and not their actions. If it does not, then it is not true. At Thursday’s. Russ Shafer-Landau argues that the notion of impartiality is both good and bad for the theory of utilitarianism. Define competency and decisional capacity 5. How can we use ethical theories and frameworks to help us determine appropriate legislation or whether or not a particular technology is designed to be ethical? The good news is that for many centuries, philosophers have discussed theoretical ways of understanding morality and ethics and have theorized various ways to guide moral living. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ethical theories. Three theories on the ethics of killing are critically examined in the book: deontology, a libertarian moral rights theory, and utilitarianism. Newey, Cardiff University The punchy central claim of Torbjörn Tännsjö's book is that act-utilitarianism best explains our considered intuitions about the moral status of. First assignment Read Mill, chs. Ethics isn't just about. But then that pathway may not be appropriate for everyone and every decision. Antonakis, A. Three General Theories of Ethics and the Integrative Role of Integrity Theory. The four main theories of personality are the psychoanalytic, trait, humanistic and social cognition approaches. His first film choice, Hotel Rwanda (2004), is an effective beginning. Arnold Hall, July 1999 Professor John Gueguen FIRST PART INTRODUCTION class 1 (July 13) – Orientation to the course; the contemporary context 1. To illustrate the differences between these theories, consider the case of lying. 16 ■ Chapter 2 Jane Addams’ Theory of Democracy and Social Ethics “build communities in which the necessary opportunities and resources for every indi- vidual to realize fully his or her particular capacities and power through participation in political, social and cultural life” (Westbrook, 1991, p. Therefore, in making ethical decisions, one of the first questions to consider is 'what a reasonable man would do in this situation?'For tougher decisions, advisors may find three rules of management helpful. The foundation of ethical decision-making involves choice and balance; it is a guide to discard bad choices in favor of good ones. These three types of ethics seek to describe the rules, behavioral trends and moral codes that govern -- or ought to govern -- human behavior. 2 Setting up Effective Accounting Rules 5. Providing an introduction to moral theory that explains and critically examines the theories of such classical moral philosophers as Aristotle, Aquinas, Kant, Bentham, Mill, and Ross, this book acquaints students with the work of. As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory. Create a recognition program tied to employee use of the code of ethics. Throughout history, a few moral theories have surfaced and have been analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses. American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics, 1996 6. This theme can be identified as providing an efficient method of acting in accordance with an ethical theory. Based on the outcomes of actions. Eberle** 27 Saint Louis University Law Journal, pp. According to. The free market has no end, its duration is indefinite: in principle it is forever. Early writers on ethics from the Mu'tazila school were probably influenced by Greek. Ethics For Life includes heavy biases toward certain moral positions. The discussion that follows is organized into three parts: (1) the major theories or "moral philosophies" that are applied to business ethics; (2) a well-established model of ethical decision-making in business; and (3) the factors that affect individual ethical decision-making in the business context. Thus the. This is the table of contents for the book Business Ethics (v. Theories about the world refer to the beliefs we hold about how the world works, the nature of the causal network in which we live, and the ways in which our decisions influence the. Ethic definition is - the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. So, the two theories are basically the same, and differ mainly in regard to their scope. A 2015 study surveyed more than 300 companies in an effort to characterize how companies created and applied ethical policies. Koontz describes six schools of management theory as follows. 4 Utilitarianism: The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number; 2. Contents provided in these articles are meant for general information only, and are not suggested as replacement to standard references. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. (ethics) the theory that the. These theories propose a set of ethical principles that can be easily assessed and. introduction to ethical concepts A clear understanding of the terms, concepts and distinctions that people commonly use to express moral or ethical problems and concerns enables us to identify what is ethically significant (or "morally relevant") in a situation. Suppose, for the moment, that we have decided moral objectivism is true. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development. Three Theories of the Good There are, in essence, three schools of thought on the nature of the good: the intrinsic, the subjective, and the objective. Section 101. (3) For example, Lawlor, Rob. I do not believe that my outlook is derived from any specific religious background, but clearly is grounded in religious traditions. Western 'meta' theories sit behind applied ethical approaches. Ethics For Life includes heavy biases toward certain moral positions. Hence this theory was popularized by taking both male and female thinking capabilities into account. There are three categories of ethical theories: Normative ethics; Meta ethics. Volume 2, 2008 - Issue 2. For more details on it (including licensing), click here. The foundation of ethical decision-making involves choice and balance; it is a guide to discard bad choices in favor of good ones. Non-Cognitivist theories are metaethical theories that argue against the claim that ethical terms are informative and rest to certain facts about the universe or human nature, i. You will remember that teleological theories focus on the goal of the ethical action. Relativism Theory Relativism theory proposes that ethical values are relative to a particular environment or location. Ethical theory is a philosophy based theory that contains the rules to determine if the human actions can be judged as right or wrong. ETHICS OF CONSUMER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING - Theories and Definitions. Theories of Ethical Duties of Manufacturers: There are three different theories on the ethical duties of manufacturers viz. It is sometimes referred to as "the Ten. Here's one: "The phenomenon of economic ignorance is so widespread, and its consequences so frightening, that the objective of reducing that ignorance becomes a goal invested with independent moral worth. Make a system where points are given every time the code of ethics is accessed by employees. The three main business ethics theories are deontological theory, utilitarianism, and norm theory. First assignment Read Mill, chs. Global media ethics aims at developing a comprehensive set of principles and standards for the practice of journalism in an age of global news media. Dependency and interdependency of human existence. Applied ethics is the actual application of ethical theory for the purpose of choosing an ethical action in a given issue, usually divided into various field. Theories of Morality Theories of Morality The three main theories of morality include Aristotle’s, Kant’s, and Mill’s. It is needless to mention that satisfactory justification and practical application of theories of punishment is one of the most important and complex problems in ethics. Brian Taylor et al. Features an entire chapter dedicated to ethics as it relates to persuasion. Triune Ethics theory (TET) is a psychological theory developed to meet three goals. Such theories arise in religion, spiritual traditions, philosophy, social-political-historical systems, literature and the humanities, social and cultural movements, and pop psychologies. Maybe he or she was your third grade teacher or your high school chemistry teacher but all of us have had at least one teacher that had a profound effect on our lives and that we consider our “favorite. Included in this area is the concept of "virtues". Ethics Theory and Practice* Chapter 4 Virtue Ethics Last modified by:. Virtue (excellence), then, is (a) a state of character concerned with choice, (b) lying in a mean, (c) the mean relative to us, (d) this being determined by a rational principle, (e) and by that principle by which the man of practical wisdom would determine it. 0 Corporate Governance Issues 5. She is the author of 20 books, including Moral Leadership: The Theory and Practice of Power, Judgment, and Policy (Jossey-Bass, 2006), and Legal Ethics (Foundation Press, 5th Edition, 2009). They include the stockholder theory, the stakeholder theory and the social-contract theory. Section 3: Early Christian Ethics Section 4: Modern Moral Philosophy Section 5: 20th Century Analytic Moral Philosophy. The discussion that follows is organized into three parts: (1) the major theories or "moral philosophies" that are applied to business ethics; (2) a well-established model of ethical decision-making in business; and (3) the factors that affect individual ethical decision-making in the business context. For more details on it (including licensing), click here. [STRIKER] Greek Ethics and Moral Theory 185 to have paid so little attention to a central problem — one that must surely have been current in their time, given the fifth-century debates about, for example, the objectivity or relativity of moral and legal rules. expressing or teaching a conception of right behavior. Learning theories summaries on the Learning-Theories. It is the practice of learning about, and recommending practices of right and wrong behavior. In ethics, of which questions about justice are a part, 1 we similarly divide ethics from metaethics. Well, in ethics it is common to move between various levels of abstraction. It is an expression of nursing's own understanding of its commitment to society. purity/sanctity) based on sets of principles from various theories in social and evolutionary sciences. Ethics vs Morals: Is there a difference?. Exposing the Myth of Evolution: A historical perspective; Darwin's theories - two for the price of one; new problems with the theory. In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically. making decisions about ethical care as this process will strengthen their practice. The "platonic Communism " Plato - In A Brief History of Greek Philosophy - by B. Thank you for your patience. Although some care ethics theorists reject generalization, ethics of care has some notable common characteristics. It is important, however, that public relations professionals also understand how to apply these concepts to the actual practice of the profession. Engineering is an important and learned profession. Deontology. Pages in this category should be moved to subcategories where applicable. Ethics and Ethical Theories Herman T. Speaker: Dr. Theories of Morality Theories of Morality The three main theories of morality include Aristotle’s, Kant’s, and Mill’s. Theories of obligation : Morality involves impartial duty, the moral persons listens to reason. Articulation of. Apply the PRINCIPLES. Teleology is the class of ethical theories that deems an act moral or immoral on the basis of its consequences. By analyzing the various components of the Law of Effect and the primary approaches, we can achieve desired results,. Other notes:. iii 1 The Nature of Morality 1 2 Consequentialist (Teleological) Theories of Morality 20 3 Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) Theories of Morality 31 4 Virtue Ethics 41 5 Absolutism Versus Relativism 52 6 Freedom Versus Determinism 61 7 Reward and Punishment 71 8 Setting Up a Moral System 91 9 The Taking of Human Life 106 10 Allowing Someone to Die,. Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences. (3) Ethical statements are synthetic, not analytic – that is, they aren’t true by definition. hi, i am edward. What is ethics of care! Arose out of feminist theories and perspectives Shifts the focus to the unique demands of specific situations, and the feelings and virtues that are central to close personal relationship (Compassion, empathy, love, sympathy, fidelity, etc. There are four major ethical theories: deontology (or duty), utilitarianism, rights, and virtue. Part II Concepts and Problems. These chapters provide the reader with a general sense of how these theories deal with the central issues that define these topics. A 2015 study surveyed more than 300 companies in an effort to characterize how companies created and applied ethical policies. The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget's theory of moral reasoning. The psychosocial theories of development, which can be applied to the development of identity in students, were proposed by such well-known figures as Erikson. Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies Case 7. Psychological egoism is a purely descriptive theory that purports to describe a basic fact about human nature. What is ethics of care! Arose out of feminist theories and perspectives Shifts the focus to the unique demands of specific situations, and the feelings and virtues that are central to close personal relationship (Compassion, empathy, love, sympathy, fidelity, etc. The word deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning “obligation” or “duty. My research interests include democratic theory, international relations theory, human rights theory, and network science. Important ideas you should know: Moral Reasoning Moral judgments and principles Non-judgmentalism Moral Theories: Individual Subjectivism Cultural Relativism Divine Command Theory / Divine Instruction Theory Utilitarianism (Act Utilitarianism) Deontology (Kant’s Ethics; Ross’s Theory of Prima Facie Duties) Social Contract Theory Rights:. It considers ethics that focuses on the consequences of what is done instead of prohibiting or allowing specific acts. Use a variety of theories when possible. Text for the annotations is taken largely from the relevant Wikipedia articles or slightly altered for. By analyzing the various components of the Law of Effect and the primary approaches, we can achieve desired results,. Summary 54 • Discussion Questions 55 • Organizational Theory in Action: Practicing Organizational Theory 55 Creating a Code of Ethics 55 The Ethical Dimension #2 55 Making the Connection #2 55 Analyzing the Organization: Design Module #2 55 Assignment 55 Chapter 3 Organizing in a Changing Global Environment 59. For more details on it (including licensing), click here. There are other ways in which moral philosophy and philosophers can be categorized, but establishing ethical theories into their three schools is a useful way to understand ethics. As times change and knowledge increases, new ethical demands will be placed on you and your work. Harwood Page 3 Summary of traits identified by the researchers:. There are disagreements about what precisely gives an action, rule, or disposition its ethical force. On the other hand, Garriga and Mele’s (2004) analysis maps CSR into four types of territories. Explain how your solution aligns with the major ideas within each theory. Julia Markovits, Associate Professor of Philosophy, MIT. Laos and Vietnam are two examples of Southeast Asian governments ruled by few. We will explore the theory behind each ethical system, describe the facts of the Case, and interpret a course of ethical action using both ethical systems, and the significance of this dilemma. Print out thechart of basic approaches to ethical theory from my website (which I use instead of Canvas). deontological ethics (and in particular Kantianism). The source of morality comes before the act is done. Socrates exhibited a “daimonion” — a divine sign or inner voice which issued prohibitory messages in periods of Socratic spells (which some writers find suggestive of epilepsy). Dependency and interdependency of human existence. The Code enables the association to clarify. sanctioned by or operative on one's conscience or ethical judgment. Throughout this essay, we will cover the moral and ethical differences between the three theories. Ethics is a normative discipline, not a descriptive discipline. As any other theory it provides explanation and understanding. How to Develop a Code of Ethics. solely on the goodness of their consequences, where the standard of goodness employed is a standard of non-moral goodness. The term "Kantian ethics" refers primarily to the ethical theory of Immanuel KANT (1724-1804) but is used more generally to refer to other theories that incorporate some of Kant's central ideas, including the good will, the moral law, moral obligation, acting from duty, the categorical imperative, the opposing of duty to inclination, ethical FORMALISM, rationalism, universality, DEONTOLOGY. The result indicated that many businesses had ethics. 94 types of ethical theory for them in much the same way they can be good or bad for us. Answer: The three theories of ethics are: 1. Numbers don't lie but their interpretation and representation can be misleading. Eberle** 27 Saint Louis University Law Journal, pp. tion of behavior and practices. New forms of communication are reshaping the practice of a once parochial craft serving a local, regional or national public. CONSEQUENCES OF The THEORY OF The IDEAS FOR ETHICS And POLITICS. Normative ethics of behavior: the study of right and wrong. The three. Ethical theories in business cover many areas from consumer safety to supply chain. Ethics and Social Welfare. THE ETHICS OF CARE (CONTD. The Institute of Business Ethics was established in 1986 to promote high standards of business behaviour based on ethical values. ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT – Vol. • Analysis of the language, concepts and methods of resoning in ethics. It takes "life" and "value" as the fundamental ethical concepts. The second idea is the multifaceted theory of ethics from philosopher John Rawls—the most prominent moral and political philosopher of the twentieth century—and his followers. Management Concepts & Business Ethics 9 The purpose of this article is to identify the various schools of management theory, indicate the source of the differences, and to provide some suggestions for disentangling the management theory jungle. " Journal of Medical Ethics. 2 Setting up Effective Accounting Rules 5. The Bible certainly promotes the development of an excellent, virtuous character. We raise awareness of business ethics through the dissemination of knowledge and good practice. The three major types of ethical theories -- deontological, utilitarian and virtue ethics -- answer these questions differently and each generates different pros and cons. Ethics in Sociological Research. 3 Finally,there are ‘foundational’ and metaphysical theories of value in which value goes beyond the subject-. (ethics) the theory that the. Ranking Ethical Theories Your Topic Area = _Sleep deprivation and memory loss among young and old_____ Instructions Consider your topic, problem, likely solution and the five ethical theories presented below. 6 (June 2007) 370-372. According to Aristotle, morality and ethics should be concerned with the possession of one’s capability to be virtuous or to be in possession of virtues. Ethical Theory Quiz. Developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors. Understanding how this can be so is one of the hardest - but most important - things to do in understanding Plato. Some Modern Theories on Workplace Ethics. Value-judgment 18. The aim of ethical theory is to give a reasoned account of how we ought to be or act, individually or communally. Some of these ethics theories are complementary to one another, some contradictory and none are rooted in neuroscience. All are based on ideas at least 150 y ears old, and one is 2300 old. Here he discussed the conditions under which moral responsibility may be ascribed to individual agents, the nature of the virtues and vices involved in moral evaluation,. The three ethical theories are metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. The basis of this theory is we have a moral obligation to do the right thing. As a field of study: the systematic attempt to make sense of our individual and social moral experience, in such as way as to determine the rules that ought to govern human conduct, the values worth pursuing, and the character traits deserving development in life. I have always said there are three types of truth. The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Part II Concepts and Problems. In the most basic sense, theories are abstract conceptual constructs that attempt to describe and explain certain phenomena. The Management Process School. The field of ethics, or moral philosophy, investigates theories that can systematically describe what makes acts right or wrong. Morality and moral systems Rules of conduct Rules for individuals Rules for social policies Principles of evaluation Justifying rules for moral systems Religion – teachings of religious leaders Philosophical ethics – appeals to reason Law – codes determined by constitutions and legislation. This video is part of the online learning resources from the. Philosophers nowadays tend to divide ethical theories into three areas: metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. The general theory of marketing ethics, first published in the Journal of Macromarketingby Hunt and Vitell (1986), has been the focus of much discussion and empirical testing. 3 Comparing the Virtue Ethics of East and West; 2. Shannon November 11th, 2012 at 1:57 am. Nursing ethics first appeared in textbooks in the late 19th century. They are: 1) Instrumental theories, 2) Political theories, 3) Integrative theories, and 4) Ethical theories. Firstly, your goal for this assignment is to apply ethical theories to a moral or ethical dilemma. In this way, there must be a balance between economic growth and the welfare of society and the environment. Plank's theory, and all that followed it, have led us to a point where the stakes surrounding society's policy agenda are incredibly high. In her 1947 book The Ethics of Ambiguity, Simone de Beauvoir outlines an existentialist ethics. Kant’s theory is an example of a deontological moral theory–according to these theories, the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend on their consequences but on whether they fulfill our duty. Finally, I will sketch the outlines of a revisionist understanding of the just war that I believe is more consistent and plausible, as well as better grounded, than the traditional theory. Contemporary ethical principles have evolved from many sources. Types of Ethical Theories Utilitarianism. Business Ethics. solely on the goodness of their consequences, where the standard of goodness employed is a standard of non-moral goodness. consequentionalism considers the end goal of ethical decision making to be the consequence ,. Gehringer ([email protected] Consequentialist ethics come from the teleological branch of ethical theory. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development. Reply: Then we can use rules of thumb which a long experience has shown to be usually successful. Each ethical theory described in chapter three offers you a different way of thinking about a case and provides insights into that case that. Ethics and Ethical Theories Herman T. Each moral theory holds a specific approach in how to handle life's decisions. 6 (June 2007) 370-372. Make Ethical Ideas Accessible to Students With a clear presentation, Ethics: Theory and Practice educates readers about ethical theory and has them apply what they learn to specific classic and contemporary moral problems (lying, cheating, establishing ethical business practices, honoring ethical obligations in medicine, etc. American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics, 1996 6. This article tries to clarify the situation, "mapping the territory" by classifying the main CSR theories and related approaches in four groups: (1) instrumental theories, in which the corporation is seen as only an. 3) Action: harmony with what is believed and not changing to please others 4) Relational Orientation: seeks openness and truthfulness in close relationships- letting others see the good and bad aspects of who we really are. In order to have a fully developed environmental ethics, it is necessary to combine one's preferred axiology with a normative theory that tells us how to act. " Journal of Medical Ethics. PHIL 301 Ethical Theory (3) PHIL 301 Ethical Theory (3) College of Arts & Humanities, Philosophy. Environmental ethics and weak anthropocentrism. This word comes from "deon" or "duty". Normative ethics seeks to set norms or standards for conduct. What is the moral code of altruism? The basic principle of altruism is that man has no right to exist for his own sake, that service to others is the only justification of his existence, and that self-sacrifice is his highest moral duty, virtue and value. Business ethics are defined by the behavior standards of management and personnel, and the way in which business is carried out at both a strategic and operational level. Types of Ethical Theories Utilitarianism. Because they are often presen ted as comp eting theories of ethical obligation, one ma y get the discouraging impression that there is a p ermanen t lac k of consensus among p eople who think ab out ethics. virtue ethics, consequentialism (in particular utilitarianism) and. This system of ethics guides the practice of science, from data collection to publication and beyond. Ethics is that branch of philosophy that deals with morality. Its methodology must match its subject matter—good action—and must respect the fact that in this field many generalizations hold only for the most part. 1 / Social Ethics—p. How to Develop a Code of Ethics. The Age of the Universe: Theory and Observations; Physics, Functions, and Differential Equations. An ethical egoist believes that correct moral behavior should be based solely on principles of self-interest. In ethics, of which questions about justice are a part, 1 we similarly divide ethics from metaethics. In this way, there must be a balance between economic growth and the welfare of society and the environment. Introduction 3. Emotivism is one version of non-cognitivism - Ayer's preferred version. The Code of Ethics for Nurses reflects all of these approaches. Ethics is a normative discipline, not a descriptive discipline. This process differs from only acting upon items of self-interest or creating a rational explanation behind the need to pursue one’s own self-interest. During the past decade ethical theory has been in a lively state of development, and three basic approaches to ethics - Kantian ethics, consequentialism, and virtue ethics - have assumed positions of particular prominence. As typical examples of teleological ethical theories, one refers to classical utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill) and such 20th-century developments as rule utilitarianism (R. , The Contract View The Due Care View and The Social Cost View The contract view would place a greater responsibility on the consumer, whereas the due care and social costs views place the larger measure of responsibility on the manufacturer. Kantian ethics has a more restricted scope. (4) Rowan, Ethics for the Professions, 9. Normative ethics, that part of moral philosophy, or ethics, concerned with criteria of what is morally right and wrong. " Thus, deontological ethics maintains that actions are not justified by their consequences. Russ Shafer-Landau argues that the notion of impartiality is both good and bad for the theory of utilitarianism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: An International Forum is a double-blind peer-reviewed philosophical journal which aims to publish the best work produced in all fields of ethics. Thus, theories are by their. Ensure that they are qualified for any project on which they work or propose to work by an appropriate combination of education and training, and experience. Within the text, there is also links to other articles and videos. The ethical theories presented in chapter three of Engineering Ethics are part of a framework for analyzing ethical dilemmas; the code of ethics is another component of this framework. By definition ethics is “rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good or bad” (Merriam-Webster, 2013). NursingWorld | Code of Ethics It is the profession's nonnegotiable ethical standard. Indeed, studies that have included more than three ethical theories (for example, Granitz &. d1rkab7tlqy5f1. Business ethics theory of CSR. The conflicting issues in this case study are: agency survival verses creative grant writing. Deontological ethics is a theory of morality based on a "nonconsequentialist" view of people and moral decision-making. Relate the notion of moral virtue to reason and the emotions. Like hedonism, desire theory can explain why an ice-cream cone is preferable to a poke in the eye. First assignment Read Mill, chs. Aristotle applied the same patient, careful, descriptive approach to his examination of moral philosophy in the εθικη νικομαχοι ( Nicomachean Ethics ). Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ethical theories. (3) For example, Lawlor, Rob. Criminal Justice Ethics, Fourth Edition examines the criminal justice system through an ethical lens by identifying ethical issues in practice and theory, exploring ethical dilemmas, and offering suggestions for resolving ethical issues and dilemmas faced by criminal justice professionals. 3 Teleological ethics Consequentialism. Hall and Ellman, Health Care Law and Ethics, West. Well, in ethics it is common to move between various levels of abstraction. Principles which hold for everybody will prescribe or recommend the same for everybody (same obligations, same rights, same virtues and so on). Looking for a Better Job Outside the Company. We will explore the theory behind each ethical system, describe the facts of the Case, and interpret a course of ethical action using both ethical systems, and the significance of this dilemma. Virtue is very distinct from other. Hall and Ellman, Health Care Law and Ethics, West. Famous For: Aristotelian logic & theory of soul The third member who has greatly influenced western philosophy, Aristotle provided ideas in the areas of aesthetics, ethics, logic, metaphysics, politics, and science. Ethical challenges for business in the new millennium: Corporate social responsibility and models of management morality AB Carroll Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (1), 33-42 , 2000. What matters for virtue theory, more specifically, is the character of the agent. Features an entire chapter dedicated to ethics as it relates to persuasion. There are three categories of ethical theories: Normative ethics; Meta ethics. 1 / Social Ethics—p. 3 Modern CEOs 6. Ranking Ethical Theories Your Topic Area = _Sleep deprivation and memory loss among young and old_____ Instructions Consider your topic, problem, likely solution and the five ethical theories presented below. Chapter 3 examines some theories guiding ethical decisions in business. (3) For example, Lawlor, Rob. The NOOK Book (eBook) of the 99 Cent Best Seller Four Signs You Might Get Sacked ( Theology, Ethics, Thought, Theory, Self Help, Mystery, romance, action, Due to COVID-19, orders may be delayed. Another term for ethics is moral philosophy. Ethical Theory and Business Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package Solutions for Chapter 2. Socrates exhibited a “daimonion” — a divine sign or inner voice which issued prohibitory messages in periods of Socratic spells (which some writers find suggestive of epilepsy). Support workplace policies, standards and practices that are fair, non-discriminatory and are in the best interests of children, families and professionals. Moreover, a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving to make responsible choices within a moral community. 3 Modern CEOs 6. A second conception of universalism in ethics emphasizes the content as well as the form and scope of principles. It is also known as ethical formalism or absolutism. There are three categories of ethical theories: Normative ethics; Meta ethics. Philosophers nowadays tend to divide ethical theories into three areas: metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. Drawing on two of the theories, we will outline their positions and critically discuss the claim in a business situation. Ethical Principles of Responsibility and Accountability. Deontological theory states that ethical behavior should follow an established set of rules or principles in all types of. Submit a 2-4-page paper that analyzes ethical theories. b) The action itself. 3 This response is developed in Boonin (2003) and in Nobis (2011) 4 This influential theory of personhood is developed in Warren (1973). Make a system where points are given every time the code of ethics is accessed by employees. “An exhaustive philosophical treatise defining moral values, with a long list. FREE (5) Popular paid resources. Examples of how a theory may relate to and assist law enforcement are included. As a field of study: the systematic attempt to make sense of our individual and social moral experience, in such as way as to determine the rules that ought to govern human conduct, the values worth pursuing, and the character traits deserving development in life. For example, if it turns out that moral values do not exist, or that we cannot have knowledge of them, then all our claims in normative and applied ethics are nothing but white noise. The source of morality comes before the act is done. There are two types of ethics of conduct. Gilligan decided to study the development of moral reasoning in women herself and found that women thought about morality differently than men. Duty ethics 4. 2 Ethical Advice for Nobles and Civil Servants in Ancient China; 2. Overview of Ethical Theories. A Congressional probe, a litigation-happy Swiss heiress, a German-Guatemalan millionaire and a series of patent disputes are a few of the details in one Braidy Industries board member's past. NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. The ethics of altruism prescribes that we sacrifice our interests and lives for the good of others. As a theory of how we should act (e. But it is almost impossible to determine how much pleasure an action or a policy will produce. Philosophical ethics differs from legal, religious, cultural and personal approaches to ethics by. He was a student of Plato and teacher to Alexander the great. Examine loyalties and see if any conflict. According to. Altruism 2. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort Denotology. Resist the temptation to choose your favorite approach and ignore the rest. Ethics in statistics are very important during data representation as well. The applied ethics topic for the week relates to the ethics of war and peace. consequentionalism considers the end goal of ethical decision making to be the consequence ,. jective theories are usually contrasted with ‘objective’ theories, which ground value in the object. Each chapter has theory and cases, making it very easy to use. Newey, Cardiff University The punchy central claim of Torbjörn Tännsjö's book is that act-utilitarianism best explains our considered intuitions about the moral status of. Clayton (1998, Paperback) at the best online prices at eBay!.
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